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expect(1)命令

expect - 自動交互腳本

啟用選項

  • -c:執行腳本前先執行的命令,可多次使用。
  • -d:debug模式,可以在運行時輸出一些診斷信息,與在腳本開始處使用exp_internal 1相似。
  • -D:啟用交換調式器,可設一整數參數。
  • -f:從文件讀取命令,僅用于使用#!時。如果文件名為"-",則從stdin讀取(使用"./-"從文件名為-的文件讀取)。
  • -i:交互式輸入命令,使用"exit"或"EOF"退出輸入狀態。
  • --:標示選項結束(如果你需要傳遞與expect選項相似的參數給腳本時),可放到#!行:#!/usr/bin/expect --。
  • -v:顯示expect版本信息。

常用命令

# 命令行參數 
# $argv,參數數組,使用[lindex $argv n]獲取,$argv 0為腳本名字
# $argc,參數個數
set username [lindex $argv 1]  # 獲取第1個參數
set passwd [lindex $argv 2]    # 獲取第2個參數

set timeout 30 # 設置超時

# spawn是expect內部命令,開啟ssh連接
spawn ssh -l username 192.168.1.1

# 判斷上次輸出結果里是否包含“password:”的字符串,如果有則立即返回,否則就等待一段時間(timeout)后返回
expect "password:"

# 發送內容ispass(密碼、命令等)
send "ispass\r"

# 發送內容給用戶
send_user "$argv0 [lrange $argv 0 2]\n"
send_user "It's OK\r"
# 執行完成后保持交互狀態,控制權交給控制臺(手工操作)。否則會完成后會退出。
interact

命令介紹

  • close:關閉當前進程的連接。
  • debug:控制調試器。
  • disconnect:斷開進程連接(進程仍在后臺運行)。

    • 定時讀取密碼、執行priv_prog

      send_user "password?\ "
      expect_user -re "(.*)\n"
      for {} 1 {} {
          if {[fork]!=0} {sleep 3600;continue}
          disconnect
          spawn priv_prog
          expect Password:
          send "$expect_out(1,string)\r"
          . . .
          exit
      }
      
  • exit:退出expect。
  • exp_continue [-continue_timer]:繼續執行下面的匹配。
  • exp_internal [-f file] value:

expect范例

  • 自動telnet會話

    #!/usr/bin/expect -f
    set ip [lindex $argv 0 ]         # 接收第1個參數,作為IP
    set userid [lindex $argv 1 ]     # 接收第2個參數,作為userid
    set mypassword [lindex $argv 2 ] # 接收第3個參數,作為密碼
    set mycommand [lindex $argv 3 ]  # 接收第4個參數,作為命令
    set timeout 10                   # 設置超時時間
    
    # 向遠程服務器請求打開一個telnet會話,并等待服務器詢問用戶名
    spawn telnet $ip
        expect "username:"
        # 輸入用戶名,并等待服務器詢問密碼
        send "$userid\r"
        expect "password:"
        # 輸入密碼,并等待鍵入需要運行的命令
        send "$mypassword\r"
        expect "%"
        # 輸入預先定好的密碼,等待運行結果
        send "$mycommand\r"
        expect "%"
        # 將運行結果存入到變量中,顯示出來或者寫到磁盤中
        set results $expect_out(buffer)
        # 退出telnet會話,等待服務器的退出提示EOF
        send "exit\r"
        expect eof
    
  • 自動建立ftp會話

    #!/usr/bin/expect -f
    set ip [lindex $argv 0 ]         # 接收第1個參數,作為IP
    set userid [lindex $argv 1 ]     # 接收第2個參數,作為Userid
    set mypassword [lindex $argv 2 ] # 接收第3個參數,作為密碼
    set timeout 10                   # 設置超時時間
    
    # 向遠程服務器請求打開一個FTP會話,并等待服務器詢問用戶名
    spawn ftp $ip
        expect "username:"
        # 輸入用戶名,并等待服務器詢問密碼
        send "$userid\r"
        expect "password:"
        # 輸入密碼,并等待FTP提示符的出現
        send "$mypassword\r"
        expect "ftp>"
        # 切換到二進制模式,并等待FTP提示符的出現
        send "bin\r"
        expect "ftp>"
        # 關閉ftp的提示符
        send "prompt\r"
        expect "ftp>"
        # 下載所有文件
        send "mget *\r"
        expect "ftp>"
        # 退出此次ftp會話,并等待服務器的退出提示EOF
        send "bye\r"
        expect eof
    
  • 自動登錄ssh執行命令

    #!/usr/bin/expect
    set IP     [lindex $argv 0]
    set USER   [lindex $argv 1]
    set PASSWD [lindex $argv 2]
    set CMD    [lindex $argv 3]
    
    spawn ssh $USER@$IP $CMD
    expect {
        "(yes/no)?" {
            send "yes\r"
            expect "password:"
            send "$PASSWD\r"
            }
        "password:" {send "$PASSWD\r"}
        "* to host" {exit 1}
        }
    expect eof
    
  • 自動登錄ssh

    #!/usr/bin/expect -f  
    set ip [lindex $argv 0 ]         # 接收第1個參數,作為IP
    set username [lindex $argv 1 ]   # 接收第2個參數,作為username
    set mypassword [lindex $argv 2 ] # 接收第3個參數,作為密碼
    set timeout 10                   # 設置超時時間 
    
    spawn ssh $username@$ip       # 發送ssh請求
    expect {                      # 返回信息匹配 
    "*yes/no" { send "yes\r"; exp_continue}  # 第一次ssh連接會提示yes/no,繼續  
    "*password:" { send "$mypassword\r" }    # 出現密碼提示,發送密碼  
    } 
    interact        # 交互模式,用戶會停留在遠程服務器上面
    
  • 批量登錄ssh服務器執行操作范例,設定增量的for循環

    #!/usr/bin/expect
    for {set i 10} {$i <= 12} {incr i} {
        set timeout 30
        set ssh_user [lindex $argv 0]
        spawn ssh -i .ssh/$ssh_user abc$i.com
    
        expect_before "no)?" {
        send "yes\r" }
        sleep 1
        expect "password*"
        send "hello\r"
        expect "*#"
        send "echo hello expect! > /tmp/expect.txt\r"
        expect "*#"
        send "echo\r"
    }
    exit
    
  • 批量登錄ssh并執行命令,foreach語法

    #!/usr/bin/expect
    if {$argc!=2} {
        send_user "usage: ./expect ssh_user password\n"
        exit
    }
    foreach i {11 12} {
        set timeout 30
        set ssh_user [lindex $argv 0]
        set password [lindex $argv 1]
        spawn ssh -i .ssh/$ssh_user root@xxx.yy.com
        expect_before "no)?" {
        send "yes\r" }
        sleep 1
    
        expect "Enter passphrase for key*"
        send "password\r"
        expect "*#"
        send "echo hello expect! > /tmp/expect.txt\r"
        expect "*#"
        send "echo\r"
    }
    exit
    
  • 另一自動ssh范例,從命令行獲取服務器IP,foreach語法,expect嵌套

    #!/usr/bin/expect
    # 使用方法: script_name ip1 ip2 ip3 ...
    
    set timeout 20
    if {$argc < 1} {
      puts "Usage: script IPs"
      exit 1
    }
    # 替換你自己的用戶名
    set user "username"
    #替換你自己的登錄密碼
    set password "yourpassword"
    
    foreach IP $argv {
    spawn ssh $user@$IP
    
    expect \
      "(yes/no)?" {
        send "yes\r"
        expect "password:?" {
          send "$password\r"
        }
      } "password:?" {
        send "$password\r"
    }
    
    expect "\$?"
    # 替換你要執行的命令
    send "last\r"
    expect "\$?"
    sleep 10
    send "exit\r"
    expect eof
    }
    
  • 批量ssh執行命令,用shell調用tclsh方式、多進程同時執行

    • tclsh - Simple shell containing Tcl interpreter

      #!/bin/sh
      # -*- tcl -*- \
      exec tclsh $0 "$@"
      package require Expect
      set username [lindex $argv 0]
      set password [lindex $argv 1]
      set argv [lrange $argv 2 end]
      set prompt "(%|#|\\$) $"
      foreach ip $argv {
          spawn ssh -t $username@$ip sh
          lappend ids $spawn_id
      }
      expect_before -i ids eof {
          set index [lsearch $ids $expect_out(spawn_id)]
          set ids [lreplace $ids $index $index]
          if [llength $ids] exp_continue
      }
      expect -i ids "(yes/no)\\?" {
          send -i $expect_out(spawn_id) yes\r
          exp_continue
      } -i ids "Enter passphrase for key" {
          send -i $expect_out(spawn_id) \r
          exp_continue
      } -i ids "assword:" {
          send -i $expect_out(spawn_id) $password\r
          exp_continue
      } -i ids -re $prompt {
          set spawn_id $expect_out(spawn_id)
          send "echo hello; exit\r"
          exp_continue
      } timeout {
          exit 1
      }
      
  • ssh登錄過程常規提示文字

    The authenticity of host '192.168.17.35 (192.168.17.35)' can't be established.
    RSA key fingerprint is 25:e8:4c:89:a3:b2:06:ee:de:66:c7:7e:1b:fa:1c:c5.
    Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)?
    
    
    Warning: Permanently added '192.168.17.35' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
    Enter passphrase for key '/data/key/my_dsa':
    
    
    Last login: Sun Jan 26 13:39:37 2014 from 192.168.11.143
    [root@master003 ~]#
    
    
    root@192.168.16.90's password:
    
    
    Last login: Thu Jan 23 17:50:43 2014 from 192.168.11.102
    [root@lvsmaster ~]#
    
  • ssh自動登錄expect腳本:ssh.expect

    #!/usr/bin/expect -f
    # Auther:YuanXing
    # Update:2014-02-08
    if {$argc < 4} {
        send_user "Usage:\n  $argv0 IPaddr User Passwd Port Passphrase\n"
        puts stderr "argv error!\n"
        sleep 1
        exit 1
    }
    
    set ip         [lindex $argv 0 ]
    set user       [lindex $argv 1 ]
    set passwd     [lindex $argv 2 ]
    set port       [lindex $argv 3 ]
    set passphrase [lindex $argv 4 ]
    set timeout 6
    if {$port == ""} {
        set port 22
    }
    #send_user "IP:$ip,User:$user,Passwd:$passwd,Port:$port,Passphrase:$passphrase"
    spawn ssh -p $port $user@$ip
    
    expect_before "(yes/no)\\?" {
        send "yes\r"}
    
    expect \
    "Enter passphrase for key*" {
        send "$passphrase\r"
        exp_continue
    } " password:?" {
        send "$passwd\r"
        exp_continue
    } "*\[#\\\$]" {
        interact
    } "* to host" {
        send_user "Connect faild!"
        exit 2
    } timeout {
        send_user "Connect timeout!"
        exit 2
    } eof {
        send_user "Lost connect!"
        exit
    }
    
  • Mikrotik backup script using ssh and expect

    • http://www.pmoghadam.com/homepage/HTML/mikrotik-backup-script-ssh-expect.html

      #!/bin/bash
      # BY: Pejman Moghadam
      # TAG: mikrotik, ssh, expect, lftp
      # date: 2012-05-27 14:42:14 
      
      BACKUP_DIR="/var/backups"
      hostname="192.168.88.1"
      PORT="22"
      USER="admin"
      PASS="123456"
      TMP=$(mktemp)
      TODAY=$(date +%F)
      FILENAME="$HOSTNAME-$TODAY"
      PATH="/usr/local/sbin:/usr/sbin:/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin"
      
      # create expect script
      cat > $TMP << EOF 
      #exp_internal 1 # Uncomment for debug
      set timeout -1
      spawn ssh -p$PORT $USER@$HOSTNAME
      match_max 100000
      expect -exact "password:"
      send -- "$PASS\r"
      sleep 1
      expect " > "
      send -- "/export file=$FILENAME\r"
      expect " > "
      send -- "/system backup save name=$FILENAME\r"
      expect " > "
      send -- "quit\r"
      expect eof
      EOF
      
      # run expect script
      #cat $TMP # Uncomment for debug
      expect -f $TMP
      
      # remove expect script
      rm $TMP
      
      # download and remove backup files
      # "xfer:clobber on" means overwrite existing files
      cd ${BACKUP_DIR}
      echo "
        set xfer:clobber on
        get ${FILENAME}.rsc
        rm ${FILENAME}.rsc 
        get ${FILENAME}.backup
        rm ${FILENAME}.backup" | 
      lftp -u $USER,$PASS $HOSTNAME
      
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